Posts Tagged: Integrated Pest Management
Got pests and want to use integrated pest management? Use a year-round IPM program developed by the UC Statewide IPM Program. If you’re not familiar with what a year-round IPM program is, think of it as a checklist for the agricultural pest management activities you should be doing throughout the season. You can take the new video tour "Using Year-Round IPM Programs" to explore the benefits and uses of IPM in field, orchard and vineyard crops. If you are managing pests in cole crops or pistachios, see the two newest year-round IPM programs.
Monitoring the most important pests, making management decisions, and planning for the following season are all activities in the year-round IPM programs. Even better are how they connect to the Pest Management Guidelines so you can read about the details . . . how to monitor, what the treatment thresholds are, or the best pesticide to use.
One of the basic IPM principles is to choose the best pesticide for the situation. The year-round IPM programs help you do this by ensuring you’re applying pesticides only when you need to, and providing you with information so you can choose the most effective pesticide with the least harm to water quality, air quality, natural enemies and honey bees.
The checklist, photo ID pages, and monitoring forms are easily printable for use in the field. Interested in other crops? We have 25 year-round IPM programs:
Let us know how year-round IPM programs are benefiting you.
Year-round IPM ensure effective pest control with least harm to the natural environment.
In a comprehensive study published in the January-March 2012 issue of the University of California’s California Agriculture journal, researchers evaluated the myriad factors that contribute to crop damage from Fusarium wilt, and conclude that an integrated management approach is most effective.
“Management of Fusarium wilt requires an integrated approach that includes crop rotation to reduce soil inoculum levels and the use of resistant cultivars during the warmest planting windows,” wrote UC Davis plant pathology professor Thomas Gordon and co-authors.
Lettuce is the fifth most valuable agricultural commodity in California, with a farm-gate value of over $1.7 billion in 2009.
Fusarium wilt affects all major lettuce production areas in California and Arizona. Caused by a soilborne fungus, it was discovered in California in 1990, when plants with symptoms that ranged from mild stunting to complete collapse were observed in fields near Huron, in the San Joaquin Valley. Diseased plants have severely rotted taproots.
Crop rotation. While soil fumigation can eradicate the Fusarium fungus, the authors note that reintroduction remains a significant risk and routine preplant fumigation is generally not an option for lettuce because of costs and regulatory restrictions. “Consequently, growers must rely on the attrition of inoculum that occurs naturally when nonsusceptible crops are grown instead of lettuce.”
To estimate the longevity of pathogen propagules, the researchers transported soil from a naturally infested commercial lettuce field in Arizona to establish microplots at the University of Arizona's Yuma Agricultural Center. After 6 and 12 months, the density of the Fusarium fungus had declined by 71 percent and 86 percent, respectively. After 34 months, the fungus was detectable at 0.5 percent of the starting population.
“These results imply that keeping a field free of a susceptible crop for a year should dramatically reduce the density of pathogen inoculum — provided there is no significant reproduction on weeds or a rotation crop — but that the pathogen will likely persist at a low level for at least several years,” Gordon and co-authors wrote in California Agriculture journal.
Field susceptibility. To assess the progression of Fusarium wilt under field conditions, the researchers established an infested plot on the Department of Plant Pathology’s research farm at UC Davis.
The field trials revealed significant differences between cultivars in susceptibility to Fusarium wilt. At three weeks after planting, two leaf lettuce cultivars (Lolla Rossa and Red Rossa) and three romaine cultivars (Caesar, Green Forest and King Henry) had low disease-severity ratings and appeared resistant. Two crisphead lettuce cultivars (Beacon and Early Queen) were highly susceptible, and three other crisphead cultivars (Grand Max, Kahuna and Salinas) were intermediate between these extremes.
By six weeks after planting, differences among the crisphead lettuce cultivars had largely disappeared. Although Salinas and Grand Max were more resistant to Fusarium wilt than other crisphead lettuce cultivars, their level of resistance appeared insufficient to prevent severe damage. On the other hand, leaf and romaine cultivars retained low severity ratings until the end of the season.
Air temperature. Air temperatures also played an important role in disease development. In the field trials at UC Davis, Fusarium wilt developed more rapidly in the first (June) trial than in the second (July) and third (August) trials. Air temperatures were highest during the June planting, with a mean daily high/low of 99°F/59°F. They were progressively lower during trials in July, 95°F/55°F, and August, 90°F/52°F. Additional temperature tests in controlled environment chamber confirmed a significant effect of temperature on the development of Fusarium wilt, with disease being most severe at the highest temperatures.
Genetic research. The research team has identified additional resistant romaine and red leaf cultivars and begun developing populations to determine the genetic basis of their resistance. Likewise, breeding is under way to transfer the resistance genes from highly resistant crisphead cultivars to less resistant types.
“The process is time consuming, so it will be several years before highly resistant crisphead cultivars are available,” the authors note. “In the future, highly resistant cultivars of multiple types will be available for vulnerable production areas and warm periods of the season.”
In soils infested with the Fusarium fungus, 'Caesar' lettuce was highly disease resistant.
With the early childhood eating habits of toddlers and young children, it is no surprise that preschools and child care centers often have problems with ants and cockroaches. Schools for the state’s youngest residents may also have concerns about black widow spiders, yellow jackets, mosquitos, rodents and other pests.
Many of the centers respond to the problem with pesticide sprays and foggers that could expose children and staff to residues on surfaces and in the air, a 2010 survey by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation revealed.
California’s Healthy Schools Act requires DPR to collect information about pesticide use and pest management in child care centers. The 2010 survey found that 55 percent of child care facilities use pesticides and 47 percent use foggers. One in five of the centers scheduled pesticide applications on a weekly or monthly basis, a strategy that is not recommended because applications may take place even when no pests are present.
The Healthy Schools Act also requires DPR to develop programs that encourage the facilities to voluntarily adopt integrated pest management practices, which emphasize pest monitoring, exclusion and safe treatment.
To help meet this requirement, DPR funded a Pest Management Alliance - including UC San Francisco’s School of Nursing, UC Berkeley’s Center for Children’s Environmental Research and the UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program - to develop a comprehensive pest management curriculum and outreach materials. The information is designed to help the centers minimize the risk of pesticide exposure and increase their use of safer pest management alternatives. This team created a detailed checklist that preschool directors can use to identify pest problems and find safe solutions, a 39-page curriculum, and four laminated posters:
- Steps to a pest-free indoor environment
- Steps to a pest-free outdoor environment
- How to choose a safer pesticide to manage pests, with pictures of the best products to use and those that should be avoided
- Clearly illustrated instructions for reading a pesticide label
The curriculum, which is available in English and Spanish, also includes 10 “health and safety” notes that detail pest problems and IPM strategies specific to common pests, plus a health and safety note that explains “green cleaning.”
The IPM strategy for ants, which pose the most common childcare center pest problem, begins with, “Don’t spray!”
“Spraying pesticides may kill ants, but spraying will expose staff and children to harmful chemicals and doesn’t eliminate ants in their nests,” the document says. “Pesticide residues can build up indoors where children spend a lot of time.”
Instead, users are advised to keep ants out by caulking cracks around foundations, removing plants and mulch that are within 12 inches of building foundations and removing ants’ food, water and shelter opportunities inside the facility. If other action must be taken to control the pest, IPM suggests the use of baits, not sprays, and as a last resort, hiring a pest management professional.
The curriculum can be downloaded for free from UCSF’s California Childcare Health Program website, http://www.ucsfchildcarehealth.org.
IPM techniques make child care centers a safer place for children.